BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION

What would break the back of Jim Crow America? What role did education play in the movement to desgregate America?

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Using the links provided, analyze the landmark Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education. Cut and paste the information below into a new entry on your Unit 8 Online Notebook.

SETTING THE STAGE - **Participate in The Road to Justice activity**

BASIC FACTS OF THE CASES (more than one) (check video, Link 1, Link 2, Link 3)
Make a bulleted list of the basic facts of the cases brought to the Supreme Court

  • Slavery was never legally established in Kansas, and less racial segregation
  • School segregation was only permitted in elementary school
  • Harmful effects of segregation on African American children
  • Segregation in Public Schools

MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE PLAINTIFF (for integration) (check Link 1)
List the major arguments of the plaintiffs

  • Supreme Court misinterpreted the equal protection of laws that did not allow racial segregation
  • allowed government to prohibit any discriminatory state action based on race
  • did not specify whether states could have segregation education
  • testing demonstrated the harmful effects of segregation on African American children
  • discrimination against the 14 Amendment

MAIN ARGUMENTS OF THE DEFENDANTS (for segregation) (check Link 1)
List the major arguments of the Defendants

  • the constitution did not require white and African American children to attend the same school
  • social separation of whites and blacks, states are left to regulate the social affairs
  • segregation was not harmful to colored people
  • whites were trying to equalize the two education systems, but black children were still living in the effects of slavery it would take time to get to the same place in education as white children
  • didn't say that they couldn't be segregated
  • said if you did integrate, the black kids would be hurt-they are lesser than whites
  • should be the state's right and decision to integrate

THE CHANGE IN THE COURT (leading to a decision) (check **Link 1**)
What important change happened, and what was its impact?

  • Supreme Court said that they would listen to the court case
  • The judges were extremely divided in their opinions
  • one of the Justices, Fred Vinson, didn't think that the Constitution had the authority to segregate people, but they also thought that integrating schools would be close to impossible
  • Vinson died in 1953
  • The President appointed Earl Warren as chief justice
  • overturned Plessy


THE COURT DECISION
(in your own words) (check **Link 1** and Link 2)
What did the Court decide?

The court decided that it is impossible to have segregated and equal school systems. Since they are separate, it violates African American people of the 14th and 5th Amendment. They realized that there needed to be a change.

ENFORCING THE DECISION
(discuss "with all deliberate speed) (Check Link 1)

Since the Brown case declared segregation of school unconstitutional, the schools had to start integrating. The Court knew that this would be a very hard process, so they said that states could end segregation "with all deliberate speed." By saying this, they meant that states need to do this slowly and take their time because everyone knew they couldn't handle doing it all at once. It was going to be a very long process. The only problem with letting them take their time is that it gave groups that were against integration the ability to grow stronger, and more relevant in the states.




THE IMPACT and LEGACY (Check **Link 1**)
What is the overall importance and legacy of
Brown v. Board?

It gets the civil rights movement to start!

The opposition against integration became raised to incredible heights, especially in the South. This also gave many others ideas on how to integrate African Americans and whites even further. This also gave other groups such as women and people with disabilities the strength and courage to rise and fight for their rights as well.